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  1. #1
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    Common SONY Photography Acronyms

    In order to reduce confusion, everyone is invited to breeze through this list of common acronyms used in the SONY DSLR forum. It is by no means complete ... but, it should cut down on the possible confusion you may experience reading through the postings. (You just might want to print this one )

    α
    : Trademark of the SONY Corporation signifying the "Alpha" line of DSLR camera models.

    Symbols and numbers

    +30s: The 2009-line of “intro” DSLRs (α230, α330 & α380) created with advanced help features built in to assist new DSLR users to understand their cameras, derived and functionally downgraded from the earlier α200, α300 & α350 (2008) cameras.
    +90s: The 2010-line of 14.2 MP “intro” DSLRs (typically the α290 & α390) created with advanced help features built in to assist new DSLR users to understand their cameras, derived and functionally downgraded from the earlier α200 & α350 (2008) cameras.

    A

    A: Aperture Priority exposure mode - the user selects the desired aperture and the camera chooses the shutter speed to give you the appropriate exposure
    A: (A-mount) Minolta's original AF focus bayonet lens type
    AD: Tamron's anomalous dispersion technology
    ADI: Automatic Distance Information – provide distance information to the camera for the calculation of TTL-based flash intensity
    AdobeRGB: A popular color space with a wider color gamut than sRGB, originally designed to encompass most of the colors achievable with CMYK printers, yet displayable on RGB monitors. AdobeRGB images tend to look lackluster in the "standard" RGB (sRGB) colorspace, due to truncation of Green-Cyan-Blue color levels.
    AE: Automatic exposure
    AEB: Automatic exposure bracketing
    AEL: Auto-exposure lock – allows a user to lock exposure settings and reorient the camera without changing exposure settings
    AF: Autofocus
    AF-A: Focusing Mode - Automatic AF -> If subject stay stationary, focus remains locked with shutter button pressed down. if subject moves, focus is recalculated to follow subject. Also allows for DMF (Direct Manual Focus adjustment) control, once focus lock is achieved.
    AF-C: Focusing Mode - Continuous AF -> Follows subject through continual adjustment of focus while shutter button is held down or half-pressed.
    AF-S: Focusing Mode - Single-spot AF -> Focus stays locked even if subject changes location with shutter button held down
    AF Micro-adjust: An "advanced feature" of some DSLR cameras to allow for minor focal adjustment of the sensor to compensate for a manufacturer's QA/QC issue with lenses not being properly corrected before sale. (Comment: If a lens is properly corrected and aligned, this feature should not be necessary on any camera. They should all line up on precisely the same spot.)
    AIS: Sony's proprietary hot shoe that can accept a variety of accessories such as a microphone and light
    AL: Aspherical lens
    APO: Apochromatic – Technology which minimizes color aberration
    APS-C: SONY's 1.5x crop sensor like in the SONY α100, α200, α230, α300, α330, α350, α380, α500, α550, α700
    ASA: American Standards Association - now ISO
    ASL: Aspherical – allows for high quality, yet compact and lightweight lenses
    ASP: Aspherical
    AT-X: Advanced Technology-Extra by Tokina
    AUTO: A mode selection where complete control of the image taking process is given to the camera, to be determined by an algorithm inside the camera.
    Autofocus: A focus mode that allows the camera to automatically attempt a contrast focus on a particular focal point, selected by the user or automatically selected by the camera. Autofocus usually occurs when the shutter release button is half depressed, or a pre-focus occurs on many SONY DSLRs, when the user's face is detected near (within 2 inches) of the viewfinder.
    AWB: Automatic white balance

    B

    BF: Back-focus – A focusing flaw in a lens, where the focal center is improperly offset during autofocus.
    BG: Background - what's behind the foreground subject in a photo
    BMP: Bitmap – a type of image format
    Bright: A lens reference for lenses having a base aperture wider than f/2.8
    BULB: Bulb mode – allows for the shutter to be open as long as the shutter button is pressed

    C

    CA: Chromatic Aberration - Color fringing seen at high contrast areas
    CCD: Charged coupled device, the digital sensor typically used in “intro”
    CF: Compact Flash - A common type of memory card physically larger than SD
    CMOS: Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor – pronounced “see-moss” - the type of digital sensor typically used in higher-end SONY cameras
    CMYK: Cyan-magenta-yellow-black – The four colors in subtractive color systems commonly used when printing images
    CoC: Circle of Confusion - An estimated calculation of the depth of field necessary to produce a clean image
    CP or CPL: Circular polarizer
    CRC: Close range correction - Lens designed for superior focusing at close distances
    CRAW: Compressed Raw format
    CS: A version of Adobe Photoshop’s Creative Suite
    CZ: Carl Zeiss certified lens

    D

    D: Minolta’s lenses which send distance information from the lens to the camera
    D: Designation for digitally enhanced Tokina Full Frame sensor capable lenses
    Dark: A lens reference for lenses having a base aperture tighter than f/4.5
    DC: Defocus control - Allows the photographer to control the degree of out-of-focus area for better looking bokeh
    DC: Designation for digital-only SIGMA APS-C sensor lenses
    DF: Sigma's dual focus system which separates internal focusing mechanism with focusing ring so the focusing ring doesn't spin while automatically focusing
    DG: Designation for digitally enhanced SIGMA Full Frame sensor lenses
    Di: Designation for digitally enhanced TAMRON Full Frame sensor lenses
    Di-II: Designation for digital-only TAMRON APS-C sensor lenses
    DL: Deluxe. Sigma's lower end lenses
    DMF: Direct Manual Focus - after achieving autofocus with the half-press and maintaining pressure on the shutter release, the camera surrenders the mechanical focus lock and allows direct manual control of the focus through manipulation of the lens' focus ring for movement of the center of focus and thereby the depth of field.
    DNG: Digital Negative, an open Raw format
    DOF: Depth of Field - The range (or plane) of sharp focus in a picture based on focal center
    DPI: Dots per square inch - A measure of printing resolution
    DPR: DPReview
    DRO: D-Range Optimizer - optimizes the contrast and the color reproduction of the recorded image by area
    DSLR: Digital Single Lens Reflex camera
    DT: Designation for digital-only SONY APS-C sensor lenses
    DX: Designation for digital-only Tokina APS-C sensor lenses

    E

    ECF: Eye Controlled Focus
    ED: Extra-low Dispersion glass elements which help correct chromatic aberrations
    EV: Exposure value – A method of quantifying brightness values.
    EV: Electronic Viewfinder
    EX: Excellence. Sigma's higher end lenses
    EXIF: Extended Information built into digital images that contains information such as the Aperture and Shutter speed used to create the photo

    F

    F-stop: Aperture
    FE: Fisheye lens
    FF: Front-focus – An focusing flaw in a lens, where the focal center is improperly offset towards the camera during autofocus.
    FF: Full frame - A digital sensor that is 24mm x 36mm, the size of 35mm film, such as in the SONY α900 or α850
    FG: Foreground
    FL: Focal length
    Focus Lock: A condition that exists once autofocus has obtained contrast focus on a selected focal point (usually in the center, but not necessarily, depending on mode or selected focal point(s)). Usually, the camera control releases the shutter if the shutter release button is fully pressed.
    FPS: Frames per second - how many pictures per second the camera can capture

    G

    G: SONY's high-end lenses (Adopted from Minolta)
    GB: Gigabyte – 1,000 Megabytes
    GIF: Graphics interchange format, a proprietary image format with animation and transparency capabilities, but only 256 colors
    GN: Guide number - a measure of the maximum distance range of a flash
    GND: Graduated neutral density filter - A type of filter where the top is dark and the bottom is clear, with a transition in the middle. These are useful for shooting landscapes with bright skies.
    GPS: Global positioning system - a series of satellites in the sky which allow you to precisely locate where you are and where photos were taken

    H


    HDMI: High Definition Multimedia Interface - video capability of the high-end camera bodies
    HDR: High dynamic range - A technology to compress a scene with a very large dynamic range (dark darks and bright lights) to fit into a single photo
    HLS: Another name for HSL (see below)
    HS: "High Speed", upgraded gearing for faster autofocus, revised like a new model. Some lenses were upgradeable in authorized service centers as well
    HSB: Another name for HSV (see below)
    HSI: Another name for HSL (see below)
    HSL: A color space where Hue is the color, Saturation is the intensity, and Luminance is the brightness
    HSM: SIGMA's version of ultrasonic motor drive, similar to SONY's SSM (see "SSM")
    HSS: High speed sync - Another name for FP sync which allows for high speed flash photography
    HSV: A color space where Hue is the color, Saturation is the intensity, and Value is the brightness
    HZ: Hyperzoom
    Hz: Hertz - A measure of frequency in units of cycles per second

    I

    ICC: International Color Consortium - ICC Profiles are numeric representations of the color reproduction abilities of devices, often used to calibrate monitors and printers
    IF: Internal focusing lenses which do not change length over the focusing range
    IMO or IMHO: In My Opinion or In My Humble Opinion
    IP: Intellectual Property - Any work which is the creation of the human mind, such as a photograph
    IQ: Image Quality - a judgmental evaluation based on focal clarity
    IR: Infrared - Light below the visible spectrum when photographed, produces some very unique looks
    IS: Image Stabilization
    ISO: International Standards Organization - speed or digital camera's (or film's) light-sensitivity

    J

    JPEG or JPG: Joint Photographic Experts Group - A very commonly used image format

    K

    K: Kelvin - A scale used to measure color temperature
    KB: Kilobyte - 1,024 bytes
    "Keeper" Slang for a well-framed, well-focused, contrasty image you have taken from a series of similar images.

    L

    LAB: A powerful color space which allows for manipulation that would be otherwise impossible in other color spaces
    LCD: Liquid crystal display
    LED: Light emitting diode
    Li-ion: Lithium ion - A type of rechargable battery with very high energy density, compact size, finite number of recharge cycles, finite lifespan, no memory effect, slow loss of charge when not in use, and an expensive cost
    LF: Large format
    LV: LiveView - a feature found on SONY's α300, α330, α350, α380, α500, & α550 DSLRs that allows focusing and framing with the rear LCD Panel.

    M

    M: Manual exposure - the user manually selects both the aperture, shutter speed & ISO
    MB: Megabyte
    MF: Medium format
    MF: Manual focus
    MLU: Mirror lock-up - A technique to flip up the SLR mirror before exposure and minimize vibrations due to mirror slap
    MP: Megapixel
    MRC: Multi resistant coating - Special coating used on lens filters to help reduce flare
    MS: Memory Stick - A proprietary type (SONY) of memory card physically smaller than compact flash
    MTF: Modulation transfer function - A way for people to quantitatively measure lens sharpness

    N

    ND: Neutral density filter - Dark filter which blocks light and allows for slower shutter speeds
    NEX: DSLR performance combined with portability that rivals compact digital cameras, with a APS-C sensor in a compact frame w/ HD Movie capability.
    NiCD: Nickel-cadmium - A common type of rechargable battery used where long life, high discharge rate, and extended temperature range is important
    NiMH: Nickel-Metal Hydride - a common type advanced rechargeable battery used where long life, high discharge rate, and extended temperature range is important - typical values are 2500, 2700 mAh
    NR: Noise Reduction

    O

    OMO: One Man's Opinion
    OS: Optical Image Stabilization built into Sigma lenses

    P

    P
    : Program mode - An automatic exposure mode where the camera selects both the aperture and shutter speed
    P&S: Point & Shoot camera - Small pocket-sized cameras commonly carried by many people
    Pano: Panorama
    PC: Perspective control - Lenses which have the ability to tilt, shift, rise, and fall to remedy issues such as keystoning
    PJ: Photojournalist - A photographer who reports on news stories visually, typically working for newspapers, magazines, or wire agencies
    Planar: a photographic lens designed by Paul Rudolph at Carl Zeiss in 1896. Rudolph's original was a six-element symmetrical design.
    PNG: Portable network graphics - A non-proprietary lossless image format that improves upon GIF
    PPI: Pixels per inch
    ProPhoto RGB: A large color space featuring a color gamut larger than that of sRGB and AdobeRGB
    PS: Adobe Photoshop
    PSD: Photoshop Document - Adobe Photoshop's native file format with support for layers, color spaces, and more
    PW: PocketWizard - A device that allows for remote camera and flash firings

    Q

    QR: Quick release - A system featuring both a clamp and a plate that allows for quick attachment and removal of cameras and lenses to tripods and other accessories
    QT: Quicktime - Apple's movie system with support for both video and sound
    QTVR: Quicktime Virtual Reality - Software which allows for the display of interactive and immersive panoramas

    R

    RAW: An image format captured straight from the sensor featuring raw, unprocessed data, allowing for large amounts of control and high quality images
    RC: "Remote Commander" - an optical remote control that operates the shutter and playback of the α700, α850 & α900 DSLRs
    RC2: Manfrotto's Quick Release system for tripods (see also "QR" definition)
    RF: Rear focus- Sigma lens equipped with a system that moves the rear lens group for high speed, silent focusing
    RGB: Red-green-blue - The three primary colors in additive color theory and the most commonly used color space
    RIP: Raster image processor - A piece of equipment or software which converts a computer file into a bitmap image that a printer can output
    RS: Restyled (aka "New"), aesthetic changes, and possible faster focus or addition of D feature

    S

    S: Shutter priority exposure mode - the user selects the shutter speed and the camera selects the appropriate aperture
    SD: Secure Digital - A common type of memory card physically smaller than compact flash
    SDHC: Secure Digital High Capacity - A new standard allowing SD cards > 2 GB
    SDM: Pentax version of ultrasonic motor drive, similar to SONY's SSM (see "SSM")
    SLOW SYNC: An exposure Mode used to assist in flash use to enhance the capture of the background, also.
    SLR: Single lens reflex - A popular type of camera with one lens that allows through-the-lens (TTL) viewing
    SLT: Translucent Mirror Technology® DSLR - typically found in SONY's α33 & α55 EVF DSLRs
    SO: "Significant Other", usually a spouse who takes a dim view of your spending habits on your hobby. Arguably, the most detrimental aspect of modern photography.
    Sonnar: a photographic lens design, invented by Dr. Ludwig Bertele in 1924 and originally patented by Carl Zeiss, notable for its relatively light weight, simple design and fast aperture.
    SONY: Lens designs under the Sony label, some aesthetic changes including the focus and/or zoom grip. Most of these lenses are re-badged RS lenses, with the exception of the Carl Zeiss lenses which are of a new design. Some have a different coating formula which is optimized for digital sensors.
    SP: TAMRON's "Super Preformance" designantion
    sRGB: Standard RGB - A common color space used with monitors and the internet, despite the limited color gamut
    SS: Shutter speed
    SSM: (Supersonic-wave Motor) Lense [sic] uses the nature of piezo-electric element, which changes shape when voltage is applied. Compared to conventional DC motors, the supersonic-wave motor has characteristics that fit the lens drive, such as producing high torque from slow rotation and providing quick start and stop responses. By employing this motor, the SSM lenses provide ultra- quiet, ultra-smooth and superior AF operation. Other manufacturer's equivalents are Canon - USM; Nikon - SWM; Olympus - SWD; Panasonic - XSM; Pentax - SDM; Sigma - HSM
    SSS: "Super SteadyShot - The "in-the-camera-body" image stabilization system used in all Alpha DSLR cameras.
    STF: "Smooth Transition Focus", lens contains a special element which makes transitions between in and out of focus areas very smooth. This gives a Bokeh of the highest quality.
    SWD: Olympus' version of ultrasonic motor drive, similar to SONY's SSM (see "SSM")
    SWM: Nikon's version of ultrasonic motor drive, similar to SONY's SSM (see "SSM")

    T

    T*: Transparency - A famous lens coating process developed by Zeiss and renowned for its high quality. This process is used on Zeiss and Contax/Yashica lenses. The 'T' came from a German word 'Tarnung', which means 'camouflaging', as in making invisible, used here in reference to making flare invisible.
    TC: Teleconverter - A lens accessory that fits between the lens and camera body and extends the focal length of the lens, often by 1.4x or 2x, at the cost of reduced light, decreased image quality, and slower autofocus
    Tessar: a famous photographic lens design conceived by physicist Paul Rudolph in 1902 while he worked at the Zeiss optical company and patented by Zeiss. Tessar lenses are also known as "Pancake lenses", due to their flat, thin design.
    THK: Tokina-Hoya-Kenko manufacturing consortium
    TIFF or TIF: Tagged image file format - A popular uncompressed image file format
    T-mount: A threaded lens mount system often used to mount cameras to telescopes for astrophotography
    TS-E: Tilt-Shift lenses
    TTL: Through the lens - A metering system, either ambient or flash, which works through the lens

    U

    UD: Ultra-low dispersion glass - Canon lens elements made from UD glass have a lower index of refraction than regular glass so they're used to correct chromatic abberation
    USM: Canon's version of ultrasonic motor drive, similar to SONY's SSM (see "SSM")
    UV Filter: Ultraviolet filter - Despite the name, they're typically used simply for physical protection against the elements and impacts
    UW: Underwater
    UWA: Ultra-wide angle - Usually a lens with an angle of view greater than 90°. For 35mm system, this applies to lenses with focal lengths shorter than about 16mm on APS-C sensor bodies (or 24mm on Full Frame)

    V

    Vario-Sonnar: a Carl Zeiss photographic lens design. This lens type has an infinitely variable focal length which can replace a whole series of lenses for a certain picture format.
    VC: Vibration Compensation built into TAMRON lenses
    VF: Viewfinder
    VG: Vertical Grip
    Video: A feature not currently found on any Alpha (α) DSLR camera.
    Vignette: an unintentional limitation of the image result caused by optical limitations in the camera lens. Often appears in the corners or around the entire image as a fuzzy fade-to-black.

    W

    WA: Wide-angle lens - A lens with a shorter focal length and wider field of view than a 30mm on AAPS-C sensor bodies (or 44mm on Full Frame)
    WB: White balance
    WiFi: Wireless technology which allows you to remotely control cameras and transmit images using devices

    X

    xD: Extreme Digital - A type of memory card
    [B]xi/B]: Motorized zoom
    XR: Tamron's extra refractive index glass
    XSM: Panasonic's version of ultrasonic motor drive, similar to SONY's SSM (see "SSM")
    X-sync: The flash sync speed indicating the fastest shutter speed that can be used with a flash


    Z

    ZA: Carl Zeiss Alpha lens designation


    Cannot find it here? Then look here for a more defined approach and "bookmark" it.
    Last edited by DonSchap; 06-05-2011 at 07:27 PM.
    Don Schap - BFA, Digital Photography
    A Photographer Is Forever
    Look, I did not create the optical laws of the Universe ... I simply learned to deal with them.
    Remember: It is usually the GLASS, not the camera (except for moving to Full Frame), that gives you the most improvement in your photography.

    flickr® & Sdi

  2. #2
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    ZA Zeiss Alpha lens designation for the Sony system with AF.

    And if this is sony, how could you forget to include SSS? blasphemy!
    flickr

    Canon 7D - 5D | 550EX - 430EX II - (2) PW FlexTT5 | 24-105 f4L | 70-200 f2.8L IS | 100 f2.8L IS | 50 f1.8 II

  3. #3
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    Additions made and ...

    Thank you
    Don Schap - BFA, Digital Photography
    A Photographer Is Forever
    Look, I did not create the optical laws of the Universe ... I simply learned to deal with them.
    Remember: It is usually the GLASS, not the camera (except for moving to Full Frame), that gives you the most improvement in your photography.

    flickr® & Sdi

  4. #4
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    Wow. You spent some time on this. Great resource.
    Jason Hamilton
    Selective Frame

    EOS 5D - Canon EF 24-85mm f/3.5-4.5 USM, EF 35 f/2, EF 50mm f/1.8 Mk II, EF 70-210 f/3.5-4.5 USM, EF 85mm f/1.8 USM, EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro, Helios 44-2 58mm f/2 (with EOS adapter), 430EX, Canon S90
    Nikon FE - Nikkor 35mm f/2 AI'd, Nikkor 50mm f/1.8 AI, Nikkor 105mm f/2.5 AI, F to EF adapter, 2xVivitar 285, other lighting stuff
    Mamiya C220 - 80mm f/2.8

    Gear List flickr

  5. #5
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  6. #6
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    Nice, someone put a sticky on this.
    Canon 5D Mark II (Canon 35mm/1.4L | Canon 24-70 f/2.8L | Canon 135mm/2L | 430EX II | Gitzo G1125 + 494RC2)

    flickr


    I bought a new camera. It's very advanced - you don't even need it. ~Steven Wright

  7. #7
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    And there you have it ... it's stuck!
    Don Schap - BFA, Digital Photography
    A Photographer Is Forever
    Look, I did not create the optical laws of the Universe ... I simply learned to deal with them.
    Remember: It is usually the GLASS, not the camera (except for moving to Full Frame), that gives you the most improvement in your photography.

    flickr® & Sdi

  8. #8
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    And perhaps someone with equal expertise in the other DSLR manufacturers can migrate much of this info, as much of it is general photographic terminology, and add a similar thread to the other manufacturer forums.
    Canon 5D Mark II (Canon 35mm/1.4L | Canon 24-70 f/2.8L | Canon 135mm/2L | 430EX II | Gitzo G1125 + 494RC2)

    flickr


    I bought a new camera. It's very advanced - you don't even need it. ~Steven Wright

  9. #9
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    What is DMF? I think it needs to be added to the list.

    Frank
    Sony A77
    Sony A580
    Sony A 100
    Maxxum 400si.
    Sony 18-70 Kit Lens
    Minolta AF 35-70
    Minolta AF 50 f/1.7
    Tamron 70-300 f/4-5.6 Di LD
    Tamron 60mm Macro
    Tamron 17-50 f/2.8
    Tamron 2x Converter
    Sony HVL-F42AM
    Quantaray 70-300 4.5-5.6 Macro
    Slingshot 200 Bag



    http://www.flickr.com/photos/22083244@N06/

    http://s305.photobucket.com/albums/nn219/sparkie1263/

  10. #10
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    DMF: Direct Manual Focus. It means that after the camera has selected an AF point, you can manually change the focus point by turning the focusing ring. In AF-S (Nikon) or SSM (Sony), don't think SAM does this, full time MF is available. On the A700, you can press a button on the back (AF/MF button) to enable a quick change in focus.
    flickr

    Canon 7D - 5D | 550EX - 430EX II - (2) PW FlexTT5 | 24-105 f4L | 70-200 f2.8L IS | 100 f2.8L IS | 50 f1.8 II

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